Song Xiaochuan 宋小川

Spring Festival

Click here for Part 1 of the video

Click here for Part 2 of the video

Click here for Part 3 of the video

Here is the full cast list typed up by Fern, which originally she posted here.

Hosts:Ren Luyu 任鲁豫、Zhang Zhe 张喆、Dong Yi 董艺、Fu Yulong 付玉龙

Honored guests:Lei Kesheng 雷恪生、Xu Di 许娣、Liu Guijuan 刘桂娟、He Yunwei 何云伟、Li  Jing 李菁、Song Xiaochuan 宋小川 and others

(1) Heaven and Earth All Auspicious 《天上人间共吉祥》 – Li Jun 李军、Hu Xuan 胡璇、Jiang Yishan 姜亦珊、Dou Xiaoxuan 窦晓璇 、Xu Mengke 徐孟珂、Liu Zhen 刘宸 and others

(2) Comic dialog In the year of the Horse let’s sing “Ma” 相声《马年唱马》- He Yunwei 何云伟、Li  Jing 李菁

(3) Fragrance of National Essence (Part 1)《国粹飘香》(一)

1、Beijing Opera The Wujia Slope 京剧《武家坡》 –  Zhang Jianguo 张建国、Zhao Xiujun 赵秀君

2、Beijing Opera Silang Visits his Mother·Son and Mother Meet 京剧《四郎探母·见娘》 – Zhao Baoxiu 赵葆秀、Li Baochun 李宝春

3、Beijing Opera Entering the Palace for the Second Time 京剧《二进宫》- Yu Kuizhi 于魁智、Li Shengsu 李胜素、Meng Guanglu 孟广禄

(4) Comedy sketch Restaurant Makeover 小品《酒楼蜕变》 – Li Weijian 李伟健、Liu Guijuan 刘桂娟、Wan Yu 万宇、Li Baomei 李玉梅

(5) Happy New Year Family Reunion 《欢欢喜喜过大年》 – Liu Jinquan 刘金泉、Zhai Mo 翟墨、Liu Zhen 刘宸

1、Beijing Opera 京剧:Zhang Xinyue 张馨月、Du Zhe 杜喆

2、Shaoxing Opera 越剧:Wang Zhiping 王志萍、Zheng Guofeng 郑国凤

3、Wuxi Opera 锡剧:Zhou Dongliang 周东亮、Dong Hong 董红
Very sympathetic couple!

4、Henan Opera 豫剧:Jin Buhuan 金不换、Xu Fuxian 徐福先
This snippet was definitely the funniest thing I’ve seen in this year so far.

5、Huangmei Opera 黄梅戏:Zhou Shan 周珊、Zhou Yuanyuan 周源源

(6) Talk show My childhood Chinese Opera education 脱口秀《我的戏曲启蒙》 – Fang Qingping 方清平
This man graduated at NACTA, and now shares his memories. I always had a picture in my mind about how children are picked for this or that role, apparently I was right. “Your face is handsome, you will be trained as sheng!” “You are chubby, you’ll be trained as chou!” Fang, rather reluctantly, ended up as dan.

(7) Jinghu piece Welcome Spring 京胡协奏曲《迎春》 – Yan Shouping 燕守平、Li Zuming 李祖铭 and others

(8) Chinese Opera Skit Fulfilling a Dream 戏曲小品《圆梦》 – Tan Zhengyan 谭正岩、Fang Xu 方旭 and others
Zhengyan shows us his stilt skills…

(9) Chinese Opera Skit New Long Feng Cheng Xiang·Picking the Son-in-Law 戏曲小品《新龙凤呈祥·选婿》- He Yunwei as Jia Hua 何云伟(贾化)、Li Jing as the Empress 李菁(太后)、Zhu Qiang as Qiao Xuan 朱强(乔玄)、Wang Yuebo (pingshu performer) as Sun Quan 王玥波(孙权)、Shen Tiemei (triple Plum Blossom winner Sichuan Opera performer) as Sun Shangxiang 沈铁梅(孙尚香)、Xie Tao (Shanxi Opera performer) as Liu Bei 谢涛(刘备)、Tang Chunyuan (winner of CCTV’s Monkey King Competition) 唐春园(美猴王争霸赛金奖)

(10) The Empress Wants Opera!《太后点戏》- He Saifei 何赛飞、Zhu Shihui 朱世慧、Fu Yulong 付玉龙

1、Beijing Opera Duanmijian 京剧《断密涧》- An Ping 安平、Wang Peiyu 王珮瑜

2、Beijing Opera Empty City Strategy 京剧《空城记》 – Tan Xiaozeng 谭孝曾

3、Beijing Opera – Hebei Bangzi mix Silang Visits his Mother·Sitting in the Palace 京梆两下锅《四郎探母·坐宫》- Wang Yinghui 王英会、Wang Yan 王艳

4、Beijing Opera Famen Temple·Reading the Accusation 京剧《法门寺·念大状子》 – Zhu Shihui 朱世慧

(11) Beauty of the Country《江山美人》 表演:Bai Wenqian (piano) 白汶芊(钢琴)、Wu Yuxia (pipa) 吴玉霞(琵琶)、Wu Rujun (jinghu) 吴汝俊(京胡)、Ding Xiaojun (Yuji) 丁晓君(虞姬)、Zhang Xirui (solo dancer as Yuji) 张丝蕊(独舞虞姬)、Liu Kuikui (Xiang Yu) 刘魁魁(项羽)
It seems Ding Xiaojun is frequently recruited in these, erm, things.

(12) Happy Theater Fans《戏迷乐》- Lei Kesheng 雷恪生、Xu Di 许娣

1、Qinqiang The Unicorn Purse 秦腔《锁麟囊》- Li Junmei 李军梅 and amateur performers

2、Shaoxing Opera Butterfly Lovers 越剧《梁祝》- Xiao Ya 萧雅 and amateur performers

3、Children’s Chinese Opera Stage Journey of Culture 少儿戏曲小品《文明出行》 – Shenyang Gong Jing Children’s Art Troupe 沈阳宫静少儿艺术团

4、Children’s Beijing Opera Silang Visits his Mother·Sitting in the Palace 京剧《坐宫》- Chu Fengyi 褚沣怡、Tang Da 唐达、Hao Runlai 郝润来、Yuan Quan 袁铨、Wu Yusheng 吴雨圣

5、Children’s Beijing Opera Beating the Emperor’s Robe 京剧《打龙袍》选段 表演:褚天舒、姜舒原、李明朗

6、Beijing Opera Shajia Village 京剧《沙家浜》 “There’s a pine tree on top of Mount Tai ”“泰山顶上一棵松” – Huang Bingqiang 黄炳强 and amateur performers

(13) World Full of Spring 《春满人间》

1、Wuxi Opera Couple Grinding 锡剧《双推磨》 – Zhao Baoyue 赵保乐、Guan Bo 管波

2、“Flower drum” Opera The Woodcutter and the Fox Fairy 花鼓戏《刘海砍樵》- Zhao Yi 赵毅、Zhang Yan 张燕

3、Shaoxing Opera Dream of the Red Chamber 越剧《红楼梦》- Lü Wei 吕薇、Bai Xue 白雪

4、Huangmei Opera Fairy Couple 黄梅戏《天仙配》- Song Xiaochuan 宋小川、Li Lingyu 李玲玉

5、World Full of Spring 《春满人间》- Wu Bixia 吴碧霞、Wei Jindong 魏金栋

(14) Chinese Opera Skit On the Road to Take Office 戏曲小品《上任路上》 – Pan Changjiang 潘长江、Yu Wenhua 于文华 and others

(15) Fragrance of National Essence (Part 2)《国粹飘香》(二)

1、Beijing Opera Tale of the White Snake·Boating on the Lake 京剧《白蛇传·游湖》 – Dong Yuanyuan 董圆圆、Jin Xiquan 金喜全、Yan Hongyu 阎虹羽

2、Beijing Opera Huo Xiaoyu 京剧《霍小玉》- Zhang Jiachun 张佳春

3、Beijing Opera The Battle of Fancheng 京剧《战樊城》 – Zhang Ke 张克、Yang Shaopeng 杨少彭、Ling Ke 凌珂

4、Beijing Opera Mu Guiying Takes Command 京剧《穆桂英挂帅》- Li Peihong 李佩泓

(16) Beijing Opera Canceling the Banquet 京剧《罢宴》 – Yuan Huiqin 袁慧琴、Ni Maocai 倪茂才

(17) Newly Written Historical Beijing Opera The Whole Empire Converted 新编历史京剧《天下归心》- Meng Guanglu 孟广禄、Chen Shaoyun 陈少云、Shi Yihong 史依弘

(18) Chinese Opera Song Chinese Dream 戏歌《中国梦》- Yu Kuizhi 于魁智、Li Shengsu 李胜素、Yang Chi 杨赤、Yuan Huiqin 袁慧琴

Li Haiyan


Li Haiyan is a great Beijing Opera singer and I would love to see her live. Her voice is one you can recognize immediately. She has a lovely soprano tone that I feel is particularly accessible to westerners.

The opera I am presenting today is a 45 minute version of《陈三两爬堂》Chen Sanliang Pa Tang (Chen Sanliang Appeals at the Court) with Song Xiaochuan (宋小川) co-starring.

The original name was: 京剧《陈三两爬堂》李海燕、宋小川 -京剧折子戏专场

Unfortunately, I don’t have a date for the performance, it wasn’t mentioned on the CCTV web page, which I found here.

It seems is selling an mp3 of Li Haiyan singing an aria from this opera here.

The music is very beautiful in this video, obviously very hard to sing, and Li Haiyan is simply wonderful in it. Song Xiaochuan is in very good voice as well.

The story of this opera is a sad and tragic one. A distinguished lady, Li Suping, sells herself into slavery in order to have enough money to have her father buried. She is re-sold to a bawdy house and separated from her younger brother whom she loves dearly, Li Fengming. Highly educated, she refuses to prostitute herself, and instead sells prized poems to get by. Because each piece of her standout calligraphic poems is always sold for the steep amount of three liang of silver money, she is renamed Cheng Sanliang. While imprisoned, she adopts a boy called Chen Kui and, treating him like her own kin, teaches him everything she knows. Years later, Chen Kui takes part in the imperial exams and wins first prize. He is appointed a governor of a province and immediately sends for Sanliang. But in the meantime, she has been sold to an old jeweler as concubine but she refuses to submit to her fate. Out of spite, the jeweler bribes a local magistrate to have her taken to the local court and tortured. Afterwards, she discovers the magistrate is her own brother Li Fengming.

Knowing the newly appointed governor of the province is to arrive soon for her, he apologizes for his offenses and begs for Sanliang’s mercy. The governor arrives. Chen Kui wants to behead Li Fengming, but despite her anger, Sanliang asks for his pardon. Thus the corrupt little brother is merely removed from office. (story references here and here).

Li Haiyan

Lots of drama!

File size is 309 MB

Click here to download the video

And enjoy!

Zhang Huoding and Song Xiaochuan, a photo from Zhang Huoding's 2 volume book of jingju photographs (click to view larger)

Hello and welcome to a special post!

Usually, Fern and I each write our own posts on our respective sides of the world. This time, however, we’re writing this post together before we make it public. That’s because this one features an unusual amount of files and requires more background than is customary to explain them properly. It might have been easier to split this up into many smaller posts, but I feel they belong together and wanted to keep them all together in one place. As it turns out, we kept finding better versions of each file as we were writing this post, so perhaps keeping it here all catalogued in one easy to find place will be a very good thing.

Normally when I write a post, I pretty much “wing it” and rely perhaps less on sleuthing and research and more on how I felt watching the piece. This time I couldn’t do that and really needed Fern’s help!

All the videos in this post are “re-enactments”, featuring modern Beijing Opera stars lip syncing over archival recordings of historically important past masters. These videos were part of an extensive effort by the Chinese Ministry of Culture a few years ago to preserve and disseminate rare and important, but poor-sounding, recordings of jingju.

In past posts here on as well as on Ear Candy, Fern talked about an impressive box set of VCDs of these strange performances along with a performance of the White Snake (with Li Jie) here, I posted a Unicorn Purse with Zhang Huoding (now added to this post), and Fern posted a Jade Hairpin (with Zhang Huoding again) here (which we are also re-posting below).

Recently, links to a slew of rare videos popped up on the web site forum. I posted three of these in a row a few weekends ago. At the same time there were links to this collection of operas that Zhang Huoding acted over either Cheng Yanqiu’s or Zhao Rongchen’s voices, operas which were part of the out-of-print box set of VCDs Fern mentioned.

A VCD, in case you didn’t know, is simply a regular old style CD-ROM disk with a big MPG video file on it along with a small (and usually dated) executable to allow you to view it. The video size of VCDs was originally intended for old 640 by 480 resolution computer monitors, and seem small by today’s standards. To “rip” a VCD, all that is required is to copy the largest file and rename it to an .MPG file name extension. There is no quality loss involved.

One could guess that the hardcore Zhang Huoding fans have been getting antsy because of the latest rumours (unsubstantiated, but credible) that our favourite singer has decided to retire for good, fed up with gruelling schedules and having to perform live when not in top shape or even sick. “The tickets have already been sold, what can you do?” It’s looking grim, so the fans could be seen as digging up those lost treasures. However the source of these files are all over the Chinese web sites, in various forms. A lot of people treasure these re-enactments.

As this is a post focusing on the Cheng school of Beijing Opera, let’s start by recalling some of the most well-known figures of that school here, although of course we can’t mention everyone.

The most well-known direct and formally accepted disciples of Cheng Yanqiu are Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛) and Wang Yinqiu (王吟秋). Besides their own achievements, our generation most likely remembers them as the masters of Zhang Huoding,  Chi Xiaoqiu, and Li Peihong.

Cheng Yanqiu had numerous although not formally accepted female disciples, among them Xin Yanqiu (新艳秋) and Li Shiji (李世济), two names that frequently pop up when Cheng school art is discussed. Liu Guijuan and Li Haiyan are both Li Shiji’s disciples.

From the third generation, Li Haiyan (李海燕), Zhang Huoding (张火丁), Chi Xiaoqiu (迟小秋), Li Peihong (李佩红) and Liu Guijuan (刘桂娟) are famed as the “five young Cheng dan”.

We also should keep an eye open for the newest talents, like Lü Yang (吕洋), Guo Wei (郭伟), Yang Lei (杨磊) (boy), Zhou Jing (周婧), Zhao Huan (赵欢), Jiang Zhi (江汁) and more.

Cheng Yanqiu’s repertoire included more than 80 plays, from which the most well-known operas were featured in the lip-synced series. Interestingly, although so closely associated with Zhang Huoding, Tale of the White Snake isn’t a traditional Cheng school play.

Getting back to the videos, it is important to specify that if you are new to Beijing Opera, then you should not begin with these videos as they are tiny sized, generally slow-paced and with “bad sound” — in fact, recorded before the birth of  stereo in the mid 20th century.

My feeling on watching them?

Well, the first thing that struck me was how well synced the actors are. You might think Zhang Huoding would have performed some of these operas more extensively after learning the parts down cold the way she did. I am second guessing this is because of aesthetic and artistic choices on her part rather than logistics. She seems more comfortable in smaller and simpler productions, and less cumbersome costumes: as Wenji, she seems weighed down by her outfit.

The second thing that struck me was that although there is a lot in that voice to miss, nevertheless you can really get into the groove of watching the play. The masters weren’t masters by name only.

That said, here are the plays.

Zhang Huoding

Opera 马昭仪 Ma Zhaoyi, audio with Cheng Yanqiu and Yu Shiwen, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding and Wang Lijun.

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Click here to download part 3

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1954, live sound recording
Ma Zhaoyi: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Wu Yun (Wu Zixu): Yu Shiwen (于世文); Wang Lijun (王立军)
King Ping of Chu: Guan Shengji (贯盛吉); Lang Shilin (郎石林)
Crown Prince Jian: Liu Xuetao (刘雪涛); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Meng Ying, the Qin princess: Li Danlin (李丹林); Li Haiqing (李海青)
Wu She, father of Wu Zixu: Qian Yuantong (钱元通); Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Fei Wuji: Xiao Yuelou (筱月楼); Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Zhang Hua: Yao Yuanxiu (姚元秀); Song Yuanbin (宋元斌)
Art consultant: Li Danlin (李丹林), Yu Shiwen (于世文)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2001/09

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu as Ma Zhaoyi:

Ma Zhaoyi was written by Cheng Yanqiu himself, founder of the Cheng school, and in its early years Mei Lanfang also performed it. Alternative titles of this play are《禅宇寺》Chen Yu Si (Chenyu Temple),《武昭关》Wu Zhao Guan (Wuzhao Pass) and《楚宫秋》Chu Gong Qiu (Fall in Chu Palace). Later around 1960, the Jingju Troupe of Beijing staged the re-adapted version of the drama with the leading cast of Zhang Junqiu, Tan Fuying and Liu Xuetao. The title was changed to《楚宫恨》Chu Gong Hen (Sorrow in Chu Palace), a title more frequently seen.

Three of the key characters of this play, the obnoxious King Ping of Chu, the imperial tutor Wu She and his son Wu Zixu were already discussed in this previous post.

The story:

King Ping sends his treacherous official, Fei Wuji, to the state of Qin to find a bride for his son, Prince Jian. Seeing the beauty of the Qin princess, King Ping decides to keep her for himself as a concubine, and forces the servant maid, Ma Zhaoyi, to impersonate the princess and marry his son.

Three years after, the king’s conspiracy gets revealed, so the king’s next evil plan is to murder Crown Prince Jian. The honest Wu She openly criticises the king, and gets in big trouble. The crown prince entrusts Ma Zhaoyi and their little son to Wu She’s brave son, Wu Zixu, and flees.

Ma Zhaoyi follows him with Wu Zixu to protect her, and they arrive to a Buddhist shrine called Chen Yu Si. The soldiers chasing them surround the temple. Ma Zhaoyi realises there’s no way out, so she entrusts her baby to Wu Zixu, then jumps into a well and dies. Wu Zixu later manages to break out of the trap, and escapes with the young prince.

Wang Lijun, first-class wusheng of the Jingju Theater of Tianjin, is a noted and much appreciated performer in Beijing Opera circles, with a Plum Blossom Prize (1986), a Mei Lanfang Gold Medal and a White Magnolia Award in pocket. His representative plays are Tiao Hua Che (Overturning the War Chariots)Lianhuantao (A Chain of Traps), Changbanpo – Hanjinkou (Changban Slope - Hanjin Pass), Yezhulin (Wildboar Forest) and more. He also works as laosheng with the plays Da Yu Sha Jia (The Fishermen’s Revenge) and Zuo Gong (Sitting in the Palace) in his repertoire. If you’re fond of Beijing Opera military dramas, you will frequently encounter Wang Lijun!

Zhang Huoding

Opera 三堂会审 San Tang Hui Shen (Su San’s Interrogation), audio with Cheng Yanqiu and Ye Shenglan, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding and Ye Shaolan.

Click here to download the video

(2013-12-07 update)

Click here to get the same opera in bigger format, with CCTV watermark

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1946, Shanghai Tianchan Stage, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhou Changhua (周长华)
percussion section lead: Bai Dengyun(白登云)
Su San: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Wang Jinlong: Ye Shenglan (叶盛兰); Ye Shaolan (叶少兰)
Liu Bingyi: Wang Shaolou (王少楼); Zhang Xuehai (张学海)
Pan Bizheng: Zhang Chunyan (张春彦); Sun Hongxun (孙洪勋)
Chong Gongdao: Xiao Shengxuan (萧盛萱); Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Art consultant: Li Shiji (李世济)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2001/11

The script of this play is based on the middle part of larger opera《玉堂春》Yu Tangchun (Story of Su San). This epic story has had numerous adaptations and there are different Beijing Opera versions. For example, Mei Lanfang and Xun Huisheng inserted a scene between the “interrogation” and the “reunion” parts.

The preceding scene, Su San Sent Under Escort has already been discussed briefly here. Su San (her other name is Yu Tangchun) is falsely accused with a crime, and she is transported to Taiyuan under the guard of Chong Gongdao, in order to review her judicial case. This scene is often staged separately, it’s either titled 《女起解》Nü Qi Jie (Woman Sent Under Escort) or《苏三起解》Su San Qi Jie (Su San Sent Under Escort), they are one and the same.

The story continues with the interrogation. The literal meaning of the title, San Tang Hui Shen is “Three Office Joint Hearing”. This refers to the juridical process when the highest level senior officials from three departments hear the details of the a case together at the same time and place. If you can imagine a woman in chains, standing before three high magistrates to defend herself — tremendous pressure! What’s more, one of the interrogators is Wang Jinlong, Su San’s true love, who suffers a nervous breakdown during the trial. Fortunately the other two officials, Pan Bizheng and Liu Bingyi, are honest and examine the details carefully.

In the end, Su San is freed and rehabilitated.

Zhang Huoding

Opera 文姬归汉 Wenji Gui Han (Wenji Returns to her Homeland), audio with Cheng Yanqiu and Yu Shiwen, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding and Zhang Xuehai.
[I posted an aria from this opera performed by Zhang Huoding here].

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1953, Shanghai, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Zhang Lanyou (张澜友)
Cai Wenji: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Zhou Jin: Yu Shiwen (于世文); Zhang Xuehai (张学海)
Zuo Xianwang: Li Danlin (李丹林); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Cao Cao: Luo Ronggui (罗荣贵); Luo Changde (罗长德)
Art consultant: Li Shiji (李世济)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu as Cai Wenji:

Cheng Yanqiu wrote this opera based on Liu Shang’s Hujia Shiba Paia series of songs about the life of Cai Yan.

The story:

Li Que, Guo Si and Yang Feng attempt to overthrow Emperor Xian of Han (Liu Xie). Meanwhile, King of the Southern Xiongnu state seizes the opportunity of general disorder and sends Zuo Xianwang and Bai Boshuai to invade inner Han territories. Minister Cai Yong’s daughter, Cai Yan (Wenji) flees from calamity, but Zuo Xianwang captures her. After relocating in Xiongnu land, Cai Wenji becomes Zuo’s concubine and bears him two sons.

Twelve years later, Han minister Cao Cao finds out that Cai Wenji lives in the Xiongnu state, and dispatches envoy Zhou Jin to claim her back. Cai Yan loves her husband, but as a patriot she feels compelled to go. She visits Wang Zhaojun’s tomb, another political bride, and cries bitterly. At the border of the two states, she bids farewell to her sons, and finally returns to her home country.

Zhang Huoding

Opera 春闺梦 Chun Gui Meng (Dream in a Girl’s Chamber), audio with Cheng Yanqiu and Chu Jinpeng, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding and Song Xiaochuan.

Often the Girl’s “Chamber” is translated as the Girl’s “Boudoir”, which is quite accurate in French, but has gained a pejorative meaning in English over the years.

Zhang Huoding has of course performed this opera herself (see top photo). I posted a full-length version here as well as a DVD excerpt here and a New Year’s Gala excerpt here.

Click here to download the video

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1946, Shanghai Tianchan Stage, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhou Changhua (周长华)
percussion section lead: Bai Dengyun (白登云)
Mrs. Zhang: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Wang Hui: Chu Jinpeng (储金鹏); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Servant maid: Ci Shaoquan (慈少泉); Lü Kunshan (吕昆山)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2002/01

To repeat the story:

In the 3rd Century of the late Han Dynasty, the armies of two warlords battle each other. A young woman’s newly wedded husband is taken away to join a warlord’s force and is killed in battle a short time later. Day by day, she begins dreaming of her husband returning to her. In the end, she realises he is truly gone.

There are few Beijing operas as “out there” as this one.

During the Chinese Civil War, Cheng Yanqiu was deeply touched by the fate of the homeless and destitute people. He wrote Chun Gui Meng in 1931, in the year of the Central China floods. Although for us of non-Chinese origin it’s harder to spot social criticism in ethereally beautiful Beijing Opera pieces, Wenji Returns to her Homeland, Tears on Barren Hill, or even Dream in a Girl’s Chamber are fundamentally patriotic plays, emphasising the ideas of social justice.

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu and Yu Zhenfei (俞振飞) in Chun Gui Meng:

Zhang Huoding

Opera 春闺梦 Chun Gui Meng (Dream in a Girl’s Chamber), this time with audio starring Zhao Rongchen and acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding.

Fern found this complete broadcast of the VCD performance with better picture, a video we previously just couldn’t manage to get a complete file of up until now.

The Cheng Yanqiu and Zhao Rongchen versions have a noticeable difference with Zhang Huoding’s own staging of the play: the lively servant girl huadan role is played here by a man in comic fashion as a caidan role.

The endings of the plays are also very different, with “Mrs. Zhang” standing in stony silence and ambiguously suggesting the dreams might continue in the Zhao Rongchen version, or singing an aria of love lost in the Cheng Yanqiu version, or finally in Zhang Huoding’s own productions, with the servant girl slowly leading her mistress away, supporting her, to clearly indicate Mrs. Zhang is a woman broken by the realisation that the dreams have ended.

I think Zhang Huoding made some excellent choices for her own production, and these videos have helped me gain a better understanding of what she brought in herself to the “Dream in a Girl’s Chamber”.

Click here to download the video

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1983/03/20, People’s Theatre Beijing, live sound recording
Commemorating the 25th anniversary of Cheng Yanqiu’s demise
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
erhu: Xia Kuilian (夏魁连)
percussion section lead: Bai Dengyun (白登云)
Mrs. Zhang: Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Wang Hui: Yu Zhenfei (俞振飞) (before), Yao Yucheng (姚玉成) (after); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Mrs. Sun (caidan): Lang Shilin (郎石林); Lang Shilin (郎石林)
Li Xin (chou): Wang Yang (汪洋); Li Dongjie (李冬杰)
Mrs. Liu (laodan): Qian Yuantong (钱元通); Song Yuanbin (宋元斌)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2002/05

Photo of Zhao Rongchen as Mrs. Zhang:

(Fern adds her personal observations)

Dream in a Girl’s Chamber is a thought-provoking play. To add to what Bertrand mentioned about the differences between the three stagings: in Zhang Huoding’s version, the play ends with the maid supporting her, and we can hear a sorrowful chorus singing two lines from Chen Tao‘s poem, Journey to Longxi (陇西行):

“Have pity on the white skeletons of the Wuding River, for they are men now only in the dreams of young women.”

Wikipedia had pity on me and provided the above translation. I found that this poem circulates in two versions on the net, with a single character difference: the expression in question can be read as “deep boudoir dream” or “joyful boudoir dream”, the latter, chun gui meng,  is exactly the title of this play.

However, neither the longer (full), nor the shorter (featured in the lip-synched production) original scripts of Cheng Yanqiu have such ending line, so I dare to say it’s a distinctive feature in Zhang Huoding’s version.

The full opera features a whole variety of characters: brave generals, a comical auntie, a noble old woman, a cowardly soldier who escapes the battlefield — different people who all behave differently in the times of distress, while the shorter version by Cheng Yanqiu focuses on the “dream” scene only.

Personally I always found this “dream” analogous to the “Awaken from a dream” (惊梦) scene of The Peony Pavilion. Du Liniang has a rendezvous with her cousin, Liu Mengmei in her dream (of course their love is forbidden in reality). When she wakes up and realizes it was only a sweet dream, she hardly can endure the pain, her servant maid has to lead her away.”

Zhang Huoding

Opera 窦娥冤 Dou E Yuan (The Injustice Done to Dou E), audio with Zhao Rongchen and acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding.
[I posted an aria from this opera performed by Zhang Huoding here].

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1962, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Bai Dengyun (白登云)
Dou E: Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Dou Tianzhang: Yu Shiwen (于世文); Huang Shixiang (黄世骧)
Mother Cai: Sun Zhenquan (孙振泉); Zhang Gang (张岗)
Cai Changzong: Yao Yugang (姚玉刚); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 1999/01

Being the very last disciple of and learning from Mr. Zhao was an exceptional honour for me, it is thanks to him that I was able to truly understand the art of the Cheng school. ” (Zhang Huoding, Follower of the Cheng School documentary)

We are very grateful to Zhao Rongchen too. After the academy rejected the fragile Huoding six times, Mr. Zhao was the only one who spotted she had Cheng school qualities. The rest is history.

Zhao Rongchen teaching the young Zhang Huoding

This opera is also known as《六月雪》Liu Yue Xue (Snowfall in June). It’s based on the original play by Guan Hanqing, whom we briefly mentioned here before. Download this pdf booklet if you would like to read Guan Hanqing’s “Snow In Midsummer” story in English.

The synopsis:

Dou Tianzhang decides to take the imperial civil service exams, so that he can marry off his daughter, Dou E to a fellow villager, Cai Changzong. Cai also leaves the village to take the exams, and the son of his housekeeper, Zhang Lü’er (Zhang “Donkey”) accompanies him on the road.

On the way, Zhang Lü’er tosses Cai Changzong into the river, hoping he can marry Dou E himself, then informs Cai’s mother that her son is dead. Mrs. Cai falls sick. Lü’er poisons Mrs. Cai’s lamb soup, but accidentally his own mother eats it and dies.

Lü’er accuses Dou E of the crime, who cannot endure the sight of her mother being interrogated violently. She decides to take the rap for the murder and confesses to the crime. The county official orders Dou E’s execution. She is to be executed in June, but the day of the execution from the sky falls December snow, an omen, and the governor realizes there has been a miscarriage of justice. Lü’er is taken away in chains, and Dou E is rehabilitated.

Moreover, it turns out that Cai Changzong wasn’t drowned: now a high official, he returns and the family is reunited.

Zhang Huoding

坐宫别宫 Zuo Gong · Bie Gong (Sitting in the Palace – Leaving the Palace) from 四郎探母 Silang Tan Mu (Silang Visits his Mother), audio with Zhao Rongchen and acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding.

Click here to download the video

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1984, stage recording without audience
string section lead: Huang Jinliu (黄金陆)
percussion section lead: Ni Yibin (倪义斌)
Princess Tiejing: Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Yang Yanhui: Ye Peng (叶蓬); Ye Peng (叶蓬)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2003/01

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu as Princess Tiejing (sadly we couldn’t find a photo of Zhao Rongchen in the same role):

Loosely relevant but interesting information that Cheng Yanqiu is of Manchu origin himself. His birth name was Cheng Lin (承麟), but after moving to Beijing, he changed the character of his family name to Cheng (程), which is a Han name.

Sitting in the Palace was featured so many times so far that it really doesn’t need any introduction. In this production, Ye Peng is lip-syncing himself. He comes from a family of jingju artists and is the direct disciple of school-founder Yang Baosen (杨宝森). It’s very easy to like Yang style, a good choice when you start to listen to Beijing Opera. (At least Fern thinks so because it worked for her.)

Zhang Huoding

Opera 柳迎春 (Liu Yingchun) audio with Cheng Yanqiu and Yu Shiwen, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding and Zhao Shipu.

Click here to download video part 1

Click here to download video part 2

Click here to download video part 3

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1954, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Zhang Laiyou (张来有)
Liu Yingchun: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Xue Rengui: Yu Shiwen (于世文); Zhao Shipu (赵世璞)
Mrs. Feng (caidan): Guan Shengji (贯盛吉); Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Liu Run: Su Shenggui (苏盛贵); Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Nanny (laodan): Qian Yuantong (钱元通); Zhang Gang (张岗)
Mrs. Liu (laodan): Yao Yuanxiu (姚元秀); Ye Ping (叶萍)
Yingchun’s sister-in-law (huadan): Li Danlin (李丹林); Li Haiqing (李海青)
Art consultant: Wang Yinqiu (王吟秋)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2000/04

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu as Liu Yingchun:

There seems to be a Chinese language movie based on this story translated as “The Gardener and a Lady” from 1941 based on this story.

Story can be found in Chinese (Google translate not up to task here) at

We had never heard of this opera, we don’t know why it is so rare.

This opera was written by Cheng Yanqiu, based on another play,《汾河湾》Fen He Wan (Fen River Bay) and the old narrative story of famous Tang general Xue Rengui and his wife, Liu Yingchun.

The story:

Before his military achievements, Xue Rengui was working in the home of Liu Run. One day when he was standing in the rain outside, the daughter of his employer, Liu Yingchun, took pity on him and gave him her red coat.
Seeing the coat, Liu Run believes that Xue and his daughter have had an affair and expels Rengui from his house and forces Yingchun to commit suicide. Mrs. Liu secretly orders her daughter to escape, and with the help of Yingchun’s nanny, in the miserable hut of Rengui the two outcasts get married.

Later, Rengui joins the army and builds his career. After 18 years, he meets a young man who shoots two wild ducks with one arrow. It turns out that the boy is his own son, and finally the family has a reunion.

Wikipedia about the real Xue Rengui:

Xue Rengui was born in 614, during the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui, but his early activities were not recorded, other than that his wife had the surname Liu (柳). It was said that he was poor and was a farmer. Around the time that Tang Dynasty’s second emperor Emperor Taizong was set to launch a major campaign against Goguryeo in 644, Xue was planning to rebury his ancestors, when Lady Liu told him:
“You have abilities higher than most people, and you need to know when to use them. Now, the Son of Heaven is ready to attack Liaodong and he is seeking for fierce warriors. These times do not come often. Is it not the case that you want to have achievements to show yourself? Once you received great honors, it will not be too late to rebury your ancestors.

Fern’s main source:, a superb collection of archive sound recordings, with cast lists, info and short play synopses.

Zhang Huoding

Opera 荒山泪 Huang Shan Lei (Tears On Barren Mountain)  audio with Cheng Yanqiu, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding

(“Barren Mountain” and “Barren Hill” are both used)

We posted a full length version of this opera sung by Zhang Huoding here, and we later compared it to another full-length version of the same opera sung by Guo Wei here. This is an opera Zhang Huoding has frequently performed herself, in a way purists of the form have appreciated a great deal. It is the most tragic play in her repertoire, and for that reason in not mentioned as often as the more feel-good White Snake or Unicorn Purse.

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1954, People’s Grand Stage Shanghai, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Zhang Laiyou (张来有)
Zhang Huizhu: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Bao Shide: Yu Shiwen (于世文); Huang Shixiang (黄世骧)
Wang Sixiang: Li Shaoguang (李少广); Li Shaoguang (李少广)
Cui Defu: Xiao Yulou (筱玉楼); Lang Shilin (郎石林)
Hu Tailai: Guan Shengji (贯盛吉); Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Gao Liangmin: Su Shenggui (苏盛贵); Song Yuanbin (宋元斌)
Mrs. Chen: Yao Yuanxiu (姚元秀); Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Gao Zhong: Qian Yuantong (钱元通); Li Yuanzhen (李元真)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2000/09

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu as Zhang Huizhu:

Repeating Fern’s superb synopsis from last year:

The story is set during the reign of the last Ming emperor, the muddle-headed Chongzen, born Zhu Youjian.

It’s a tragic story of a family of five members: the poor farmer Gao Liangmin, his wife Mrs. Chen, his son Gao Zhong, his daughter-in-law Zhang Huizhu and his grandson Bao Lian.

The emperor is continuously levying higher taxes, further deepening the suffering of the people. Furthermore, there is a severe drought in Henan that has lasted for months and farmers can’t harvest any crops. This year famine will strike. On top of everything else, the Minister of War Yang Sichang is ordered by the emperor to put down the peasant rebellion led by Li Zhicheng; this results in more taxes and forced military service. More and more desperate people join the uprising, and the Ming empire will soon collapse.

Zhang Huizhu is weaving silk fabric day and night and Bao Lian is selling it at the market, to be able to pay the taxes.

One day, Gao Liangmin and his son are going to the forest to collect herbs. They are warned by Gao Liangmin’s good friend, Bao Shide, that the hills are extremely dangerous, because there are man-eating tigers on the loose which have already killed a woodcutter and a traveler. But Gao Liangmin is more afraid of the government than the tiger, so they go nevertheless.

Two tax collectors (Wang Sixiang and Cui Defu) come to the Gao house, and though Mrs. Chen says they already paid the tax before, they demand more. Zhang Huizhu tells them that they can pay as soon as Bao Lian comes back from the market, so the duo is waiting until he arrives. The tax collectors take away 5000 coins, half of the amount brought in. Mrs. Chen is upset, but Bao Lian tries to comfort them that when his father and grandfather come back from the mountains, they can get a good price for the herbs on the market.

It’s late at night, Bao Lian is waiting for his dad and grandpa to return. He falls asleep after a while, his mother comes and affectionately covering him. Zhang Huizhu is still weaving at the night, but continuously makes mistakes. She worries that it’s a bad omen, and something has happened to her husband and father-in-law. Why are they staying away so long, what could happen to them? Are they lost in the forest?

Next morning Bao Shide comes with devastating news: both Gao Liangmin and his son were killed by the man-eating tiger. Hearing the news, Mrs. Chen coughs blood and collapses. Bao Shide runs for a doctor.

The two tax collectors return again, and this time they take 3000 coins, no matter how Zhang Huizhu begs them not to. What’s more, Minister of War Yang Sichang arrives as well, forcefully taking away Bao Lian for obligatory military service despite his young age and family conditions. Mrs. Chen, hearing chaotic voices outside, gets up from the bed and tries to stumble to the door, but she falls to the ground and dies. Zhang Huizhu, who has lost all of her family members by now, doesn’t even have enough money to bury the old lady.

But there’s no end to the disaster. Though the people are already extremely desperate, the imperial court want to implement exorbitant taxation. Even Wang Sixiang and Cui Defu say that it’s not possible, so the county magistrate punishes them, both getting 20 strokes of the whip. In the end the two tax collectors return to Zhang Huizhu again, claiming 4000 coins from her. She has only 1000 left. The tax collectors allow her some time to find more money and go elsewhere first. As soon as they exit, Zhang Huizhu takes a knife and escapes to the Wangwu mountains, which once were like paradise but now are desolate.

Bao Shide follows Zhang Huizhu to the mountains, trying to hold her back, warning her about the tigers. Zhang Huizhu says she’s not afraid of the tigers, that if they eat her, it will be a blessing.

The two tax collectors catch up with her on the mountain pass, where they have pursued her.

When they see she’s holding a dagger, they say they were just ordered on, it’s nothing personal. Zhang Huizhu fiercely tells her opinion about the whole social situation the country is in, that people are poor, desperate, houses are empty, and that nobody cares about the common people…

As a final protest against tyranny she commits suicide, slicing her own throat with the dagger.

play poster

Zhang Huoding

Opera 荒山泪 Huang Shan Lei (Tears On Barren Mountain) audio with Zhao Rongchen, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding

The same opera with a different audio track and a different performance.

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Fern and I discussed the presence of the performer in the tiger costume in this other post comparing the staging between Zhang Huoding’s and Guo Wei’s own productions of this opera. Both Fern and I dislike Beijing opera performers in silly animal costumes, we find it both a bit ridiculous and demeaning to the highly trained jingju artist who has to don the costume. I think Zhang Huoding must sort of feel the same way: in this video which predates her own performances we have both tiger and Zhang Huoding. In her own production later, the tiger is gone.

Guo Wei’s production, on the other hand, respected the original staging.

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1979, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Li Zhenshan (栗振珊)
Zhang Huizhu: Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Bao Shide: Huang Shixiang (黄世骧); Huang Shixiang (黄世骧);
Wang Sixiang: Guo Yunhe (郭韵和); Li Shaoguang (李少广)
Cui Defu: Zhao Yueming (赵月明); Lü Kunshan (吕昆山)
Hu Tailai: Sheng Shixian (绳世先); Ma Zengshou (马增寿)
Gao Liangmin: — ; Wang Zhilian (王志廉)
Mrs. Chen: Geng Shihua (耿世华); Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Gao Zhong: — ; Li Yuanzhen (李元真)
Filmed in: The Northern Kunqu Opera Theatre, Beijing, 1998/06

Photo of Zhao Rongchen as Zhang Huizhu:

Zhang Huoding

Opera 锁麟囊 Suo Lin Nang (Unicorn Purse)  audio with Cheng Yanqiu, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding

This video was posted a while ago and relocated here.

Click here to download the video

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1954, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Zhang Laiyou (张来有)
Xue Xiangling: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Zhao Shouzhen: Li Danlin (李丹林); Li Haiqing (李海青)
Xue Liang: Yu Shiwen (于世文);  Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Biyu: Guan Shengji (贯盛吉); Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Granny Hu: Li Shaoguang (李少广); Li Shaoguang (李少广)
Meixiang: Wang Yuanzhi (王元芝); Jin Jianping (金建萍)
Mrs. Xue: Yao Yuanxiu (姚元秀); Zhang Gang (张岗)
Zhao Luhan: Su Shenggui (苏盛贵); Li Yuanzhen (李元真)
Zhou Tingxun: Chen Xiaochun (陈孝椿); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Lu Shengshou: Qian Yuantong (钱元通); Xu Shangbin (徐尚宾)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2000/01

Photo of Cheng Yanqiu as Xue Xiangling:

This play is very popular today, all of today’s actresses of the Cheng school have performed it. Shi Yihong, not of the Cheng school, performed it as well recently. Surprisingly, it is a recent play, written during World War 2 at Cheng Yanqiu’s request.

I have to get a little personal here. Certainly one of the nicest things anyone has ever done for me was Fern out of the blue translating this opera scene by scene into English, an opera which totally fascinates me to this day and was *the one* that got me seriously interested in Jingju.  It’s hard for me to express how much I consider Zhang Huoding performing this play among mankind’s greatest artistic achievements. The French have a saying, “C’est mon grand frisson”, roughly meaning this is it, the one that has given me the greatest and most undefinable thrills of pleasure.

I posted two full versions of her starring in the Unicorn purse  here and this one which is among our top picks and which features Fern’s scene by scene. I also own the two-disc DVD of this. The 2004 “top pick” performance is in my opinion untoppable by anyone.

The story in brief:

A spoiled and rich bride sets out to marry in a luxurious bridal chariot. On the way she hears another bride-to-be weeping in her own run-down transportation, because she is ashamed of being so poor and ridiculous on her wedding day. The rich girl in an unexplained moment of generosity anonymously gives the poor girl her own lucky unicorn purse containing a large dowry. They each go their separate way. Years later, the floods come and the rich girl loses everything, her husband and child as well. Destitute, she is picked up unknowingly by the family she helped with the unicorn purse, now wealthy and well-to-do. She helps watch after their child which reminds her bitterly of her own lost child and her past follies.

The play ends happily as the unicorn purse is matched with its former owner, and generosity is rewarded as the former rich girl is miraculously reunited with her own family.

Zhang Huoding

Opera 锁麟囊 Suo Lin Nang (Unicorn Purse) audio with Zhao Rongchen, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding

Another version of this opera.

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Click here to download part 3

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1962, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Bai Dengyun(白登云)
Xue Xiangling: Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Zhao Shouzhen: Zhang Manjun (张曼君); Li Haiqing (李海青)
Xue Liang: Yu Shiwen (于世文);  Huang Shixiang (黄世骧)
Biyu: Jia Songling (贾松龄); Ma Zengshou (马增寿)
Granny Hu: Luo Xiaokui (罗小奎); Li Shaoguang (李少广)
Meixiang: Li Shengfang (李盛芳);  Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Mrs. Xue: Sun Zhenquan (孙振泉); Sun Zhenquan (孙振泉)
Zhao Luhan: Su Shenggui (苏盛贵); Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Zhou Tingxun: Yao Yugang (姚玉刚); Zhang Zhibin (仉志斌)
Lu Shengshou: Wang Zhilian (王志廉); Xu Shangbin (徐尚宾)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 1998/08

Photo of Zhao Rongchen as Xue Xiangling:

Zhang Huoding

Opera 碧玉簪 Biyu Zan (The Green Jade Hairpin)

There seems to be more than one “Jade Hairpin” opera, with different stories. The original “The Jade Hairpin” [玉簪记 Yu Zan Ji (The Jade Hairpin)] was originally written by Ming dynasty playwright Gao Lian (1527-1609), but this is not that story. I got it wrong too, and Fern busted me! But that’s alright, because this story is spicier!

Click here to download the video

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1954, live sound recording
string section lead: Zhong Shizhang (钟世章)
percussion section lead: Bai Dengyun(白登云)
Zhang Yuzhen: Cheng Yanqiu (程砚秋); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Xiaohui: Xiao Cuihua (筱翠花); Liu Shuyun (刘淑云)
Zhao Qixian: Li Danlin (李丹林); Yu Wanzheng (于万增)
Zhang Ruihua: Yu Shiwen (于世文); Huang Shixiang (黄世骧)
Liu Shaozhuang: Guan Shengji (贯盛吉); Zhu Jinhua (朱锦华)
Matchmaker Gu: Jia Duocai (贾多才); Kou Chunhua (寇春华)
Mrs. Zhao (Qixian’s mom): Yao Yuanxiu (姚元秀); Zhang Gang (张岗)
Mrs. Zhang (Yuzhen’s mom): —; Li Haiqing (李海青)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 1999/04

Our Jade Hairpin story goes like this:

The Minister of Rites Zhang Ruihua, has a daughter, Zhang Yuzhen, is now engaged to the talented scholar, Zhao Qixian. Yuzhen’s cousin, Liu Shaozhuang, had previously proposed marriage to her as well, but had been rejected by Yuzhen. The vengeful Liu bribes the matchmaker and gets hold of Yuzhen’s jade hairpin. He fabricates a fake love letter and hides the envelope in the inner bridal chamber.

On their wedding night, Zhao Qixian finds the envelope, questions Yuzhen’s chastity and leaves furious. The sorrowful Yuzhen falls ill. Her maid, Xiaohui, informs Qixian’s mother about what happened. Zhang Ruihua also returns home, and they go to the Zhao residence to investigate the case.

They interrogate the matchmaker too, who finally confesses and the truth gets revealed. The pathetic Liu Shaozhuang is so afraid of being arrested that he collapses and dies.

Zhao Qixian falls to his knees and begs for apology. Finally Yuzhen takes her wedding clothes back, and man and wife are reconciled.

Zhang Huoding

Opera 火焰驹 Huo Yan Ju (Fire Steed or Precious Horse ) audio with Zhao Rongchen and Wang Yinqiu, acting pantomime by Zhang Huoding and Lü Yang

This file is last minute addition, once again found by Fern. I’d never even heard of this opera before!

Click here to download part 1

Click here to download part 2

Cast of the sound recording, with the acting performers after semicolon:

1960, stage recording without audience
Huang Guiying: Zhao Rongchen (赵荣琛); Zhang Huoding (张火丁)
Mo Lan: Wang Yinqiu (王吟秋); Lü Yang (吕洋)
Li Yangui: Yao Yugang (姚玉刚); Song Xiaochuan (宋小川)
Huang Zhang: Luo Ronggui (罗荣贵); Luo Changde (罗长德)
Ai Qian (wusheng): Li Yuanchun (李元春); Li Yuanzhen (李元真)
Li’s mother: Jia Songling (贾松龄); Huang Wenjun (黄文俊)
Mrs. Zhou: Zhang Manjun (张曼君); Zhao Naihua (赵乃华)
Li Yanrong: Yu Shiwen (于世文); Huang Shixiang (黄世骧)
Filmed in: Jingju Theater of Beijing, 2005/02

For the interest of Cheng school fans, the annoying horizontal scrolling text appearing from time to time throughout the video provides additional information about this opera. It mentions that after Cheng Yanqiu passed away in 1958, Zhao Rongchen and Wang Yinqiu were in charge of new Cheng school plays. Besides Huo Yan Ju, Zhao Rongchen performed several other new operas, for example《苗青娘》Miao Qingniang,《李师师》Li Shishi,《婉娘与紫燕》Wan Niang and Zi Yan…

It seems that nowadays no-one shows interest in learning these newly written theater pieces, are they doomed to extinction, just like some of the “first generation” Cheng school plays?
As a little bonus, click here to download a very nice 9 mins long clip with an excerpt from Miao Qingniang, performed by Jiang Zhi (江汁), a Cheng school actress from Jiangsu.

Here is the story:

Set in the Song dynasty, Court councilor Li Shou’s son, Li Yangui, and Huang Zhang’s daughter Huang Guiying are engaged to be married since childhood. Greedy for power and in order to obtain the precious horse Huoyanju, Huang Zhang falsely accuses Li Shou who is sent to prison.

Li Shou’s other older son is ordered to the frontier, so the younger Li Yangui remains behind alone and destitute. Huang Zhang then tries to break up the engagement, but Guiying disobeys and cannot forget her sweetheart. Her servant girl, Mo Lan, arranges a meeting between her with Li Yangui. They meet in the garden, and Guiying gives him silver to help him, and admits about her inner feelings for him.

But tragedy strikes again. Li Yangui is sent to prison on false charges and sentenced to death. Guiying goes to the execution ground in the rain to offer sacrifice, she meets Li’s mother and his older brother’s wife (Mrs. Zhou) on the way. When Li’s mother learns Guiying is the daughter of Huang, she wants to beat her, but when she realizes Guiying really loves her son, they go together to the execution ground.

At the same time, the precious horse, Huoyanju runs to the border station and Li’s older brother, Li Yanrong returns from the frontier. Huang’s evil deeds get revealed and things turn out well in the nick of time!



In conclusion, although looking at this treasure vault of material was quite exhilarating, and I am sure I will come back to view it often in the future, I am a bit sad. We’ve finally rounded up the very last few full-length videos my favourite singer has performed in. There might not be more to come. Let’s pause to think about that and bow our heads. (It’s not pretty to see a grown man cry).

I’m personally hoping Zhang Huoding will finally turn to HD video production and make the world a much better place  to live in. That is my daydream and I will cling to it.

In the meanwhile, enjoy!

(And thank you Fern, you were stupendous!)

Zhang Huoding in the White Snake

I don’t know if you’ve noticed, but I’ll post any worthwhile video if Zhang Huoding in it. (Fern gasps)

So here’s another brand new find on the fan forum — a “quickie” 35 minute version of the White Snake. The original title is 张火丁《断桥》 京剧研究生班十周年汇报演出-白蛇传,which translates very roughly as “10th anniversary Opera School postgraduate performance”.

I have already posted two full-length versions of this opera with Zhang Huoding here from 2010 and an older one here . I haven’t gotten bored with this top star performing her most famous role. I honestly don’t think I ever will.

As in all versions, Song Xiaochuan is here as well in his role as the serpent’s lover.

This was televised on CCTV 11, date of performance is 2007-12-15, shot at Beijing’s Chang’an Grand Theater. Picture and sound quality are superb! I really like the color on this one.

play poster

File size is 207 MB. Do yourself a favor:

Click here to download the video

Brew yourself some jasmine tea and enjoy!


Florists rejoice!

Another forum friend posted the missing curtain call from this play. I like watching these bits at the end. Question: how many bouquets can Zhang Huoding hold in her arms at the same time?

Click here to find out

autographed playlist

Last week I discovered a studio CD by my favorite singer I did not know existed here.

2005 CD

I had seen the cover to this Zhang Huoding CD before, but it seemed so amateurish I thought it was a live audience recording being distributed. But no, it is a very good recording of the singer at her peak in 2005.

I posted a couple of tracks from this a while back, without knowing the origin, here and here. The CD seems to be out of print everywhere at the moment. But don’t worry, we’ll start a petition.

Later this week, I stumbled on two more nice live MP3 recordings by Madame Huoding, first an aria from the Butterfly Lovers opera, then from the Dragon and the Phoenix.

The source of the latter two was here.

Finally, to round out the week, Fern found some rare audience video recordings of Zhang Huoding.

She wrote me, “I was sorting out my folders and suddenly I got an idea, regarding a complete Da Deng Dian with Zhang Huoding. That opera is part of the Red-maned Fierce Horse (Hongzong Liema) monster play, and almost always only
a few acts are performed together at once, Wujia Po and Da Deng Dian are always inside though.

I started to search for “红鬃烈马” “张火丁” and found some valuable information:

The Mandarin Duck Grave you recently uploaded was performed in Chang’an Grand Theatre 2006/11/24. (Before that, there was a performance by Zhang Huoding’s brother).

The next day, 2006/11/25 there was a performance of Hongzong Liema, in which Zhang Huoding starred in the Wujia Po and the Da Deng Dian parts. [Fern mentions that she is looking for the the first part, Bie Yao, played by Jin Xiquan and Xiong Mingxia.]

I found only this copy so far:

It’s small but not that bad. They lift up the banner at the end like after the Mandarin Ducks.

(In) the channel of the same individual who uploaded the Mandarin Duck Grave here, there was this atypical piece there too, a full Sitting in the Palace w/ Zhang Huoding and Du Zhenjie:

Crappy quality but it’s kind of a rarity I guess. The oh-so-famous part starts at 30:54.

The full cast for these two days’ performances is as follows:


《武文华》 张火千 蔡景超 Wu Wenhua (Zhang Huoqian, Cai Jingchao)

《鸳鸯冢》 张火丁 宋小川 李崇善 寇春华 吕昆山 金立水 唐禾香 黄涛 Mandarin Duck Grave (Zhang Huoding,
Song Xiaochuan, Li Chongshan, Kou Chunhua, Lü Kunshan, Jin Lishui)


《红鬃烈马》 Red-maned Fierce Horse

《别窑》 金喜泉 熊明霞 Pinggui Leaves His Home (Jin Xiquan, Xiong Mingxia)

《武家坡》 张火丁 杜镇杰 Wujia Slope (Zhang Huoding, Du Zhenjie)

《银空山》 邓敏 宋小川 马翔飞 寇春华 吕昆山 黄文俊 陈真治 Silver Sky Mountain (Deng Min, Song Xiaochuan, Ma Xiangfei, Kou Chunhua, Lü Kunshan, Huang Wenjun, Chen Zhenzhi)

《大登殿》 张火丁 李崇善 赵葆秀 常秋月 The Great Enthronement (Zhang Huoding, Li Chongshan, Zhao Baoxiu, Chang Qiuyue)“.

Thank you Fern, that was a *nice* birthday present in advance!

To close this off, I like to replay a video Fern posted herself before on her own great blog here. It’s a really nice performance, and my copy of the video is bigger, has better sound, and comes from CCTV11 rather than CCTV4, so from a different source. It also identifies a time frame, 2006, which was very good Huoding vintage from what we’ve seen here.

Zhang Huoding as the White Snake

Click here to download the video (28 MB in size, .rmvb format)


Deng Min and Song Xiaochuan

In the Fragrant Flowers post, I mentioned Deng Min must be terrific in full traditional Beijing Opera costume and make-up. I told myself, “If I ever find a full-length opera with her starring in it, I’m posting it.”

Well here she is, along with a stellar cast consisting of Wang Rongrong, Song Xiaochuan, Zhang Jianguo, and Li Peihong in the Red-maned Fiery Horse (Hongzong liema). I originally downloaded it about a year or so ago because of Wang Rongrong, but she is not the main attraction here, I would say Song Xiaochuan in armor is, instead.

This opera is supposed to be a Valentine’s Day romance, but personally I find the storyline more than a bit confusing, because as Fern points out, it is in fact a monster-size play with almost always only a few acts performed together at once. And then actors playing one role are switched, so you have to keep score. This video also has a spoken presentation introduction rather than some titles stating the players, and my Chinese been limited, is the reason I held it back for so long.

This version is over two hours long, probably dating back a few years. Sound is fine, video is compressed and somewhat choppy and blurry. Still, it is quite watchable and I am posting the original file, although I converted it for myself with Handbrake-GTK to another more convenient format to rewind and fast forward in VLC.

There is a scene which is kind of surpriseing to see, where Li Peihong seems to be on stilts next to Wang Rongrong.

Li and Wang

Click here to download the video   file size is 581MB.


Zhang Huoding

Zhang Huoding

Zhang and Song


Zhang Huoding

The Death Scene

One of my want list items, a full-length video of Zhang Huoding (张火丁) starring in the Beijing Opera “Mandarin Duck Grave” (鸳鸯冢), has been “sort of” found. This is a bit of a surprise, Fern and I have discussed the existence of a video of this opera in emails before, we believed there remained only a very shaky and rough 50 minute audience video of this production.

This new video is an audience recording of the complete two hour opera from 2006, with near-professional camera work, but marred with way-back-of-the-theater sound. In fact it looks and feels like a practice run for a full-fledged television shoot: the camera lens retains picture quality even when zooming way in, the lighting and colors are great. But the sound snatches defeat from the jaws of victory.

I felt a bit guilty about this post. You really shouldn’t start here if you are new to Beijing Opera (check out our “Among Our Top Picks” blog category posts instead) and normally I would not post a video of this less-than-stellar quality.

Then I watched the video and saw nothing but beauty and poetry in motion, Zhang Huoding simply mesmerizes. The death scene holds incredible drama, the supporting players give their all. Song Xiaochuan is superb.

Well, perhaps you should make up your own mind.



Mentioned on the star’s web site in the forums, it was downloaded from here and assembled from multiple parts from  by the ViDown tool on an old Windows XP SP1 box I keep for just such occasions. Then to resolve some flv format glitches it was converted to m4v using Handbrake-gtk on Linux.

Click here to download the video  The file size is 405MB and the format is m4v, playable in VLC.


Zhang Huoding in a dress

Hurray! (Did I ever mention I was a compulsive completist?)

Thanks once again to the great fans at Zhang Huoding’s official web site, here is the same opera as this one, only with far better picture and sound.

It’s a big one, ain’t kidding around. File size is 1.4 GB, file format is MP4 which you can view in VLC, among others.

Click here to download

And enjoy!

Zhang Huoding


Here is another version of the full-length opera Legend of the White Snake featuring my favorite singer, Zhang Huoding, in a role she has become famous for. There is another complete version of this opera here and an excerpt from the filmed HD cinematic version here.

This new version was downloaded following a tip from a fan on the Zhang Huoding official web site. I should have taken notes to properly thank this person, I feel shame.

What is special about this video, besides the bigger picture size than usual, is that it is recent. Zhang Huoding had a limited engagement in Shanghai in April 2010. That run included the White Snake opera. This video was labeled as “Shanghai Tianchan 2010-06″, which leads me to believe this television production was shot at that time and broadcast on CCTV two months later in June.

As has been mentioned before, Zhang Huoding left the limelight after leading her own troupe for a time, to concentrate on teaching for a while, then suddenly to get married with a mysterious suitor few people know anything about. This video is therefore a rare glimpse of where she is at right now.

Has she changed her style? Has she ballooned in weight? Has she lost her voice from taking up smoking?

Here’s how the baseball game unfolds:

The crowd cheers as she enters at 4:40. Rarely does a Beijing Opera audience make its presence felt this much at the onset and the star is visibly pleased by this welcome. She seems unchanged, the grace is still all there.

She begins singing a little on the quiet side, as she will for most of this play, but at 8:50 she is clearly in good voice and back in business.

Song Xiaochuan, Zhang Huoding’s eternal partner, enters at 12 minutes or so.

By 21:30, Zhang Huoding has everyone, myself included, dreaming of a fantastic reptile which transforms itself into human form to find love. She will marry the young man. Later, when he falls gravely sick, she will risk everything and try to wrest the mushroom of immortality from the magic mountain in order to save him.

At 46:35 the gloves come off and at 47:20 fireworks ensue with Zhang Huoding spinning in the way only she can, when suddenly the camera very gauchely turns to the cheering audience (with someone visibly passed out in the front row) and there is an abrupt fade out right at the best part of the dance. Man, did someone miss his throw right there. The ball went right past the catcher at home plate.

Another mistake at 56:45 as one member of her troupe fails to catch a flying sword,  first time I see such a clumsy move in a CCTV 11 program. Even I could have caught that for crying out loud, an easy pass!

Song's microphone in plain view

At 1:01, Song visibly wears a wireless microphone on his lapel, and by extension so must Zhang Huoding as well. Which explains why the sound in general is a bit muffled and not as dynamic as the performances of its stars: it’s not great at whisper quiet and tends to boom when the voices explode at higher volume. But it’s a big stage in Shanghai, what can you do? House rules.

Nice teamwork during the duet at 1:13.

At 1:15:07, we barely get a view of the interesting painted face for a second before the television producer decides to show us rolling clouds instead.

At 1:32:37 the pregnant white snake sings acapella, no backing instruments. That minute slays me.

The verdict: a superb Huoding, as always, in a rather uncomfortable television production. She’s just too big for those guys, they weren’t ready for her.

Click here to download this file. File size is 962 MB and format is mp4, viewable in VLC, among others.

(Update 2012-06)

Fern found a short news piece on this production which I added to this post here. I mentioned the pink souvenir book in the video and Fern added that although the White Snake was
on 2010-03-12 <see>, spectators seem to fan themselves with the Barren Mountain (Hill) leaflet for the next day<see>

Fern has sharp eyes!

Zhang Huoding souvenir book for 'White Snake'

Zhang Huoding Souvenir book for 'Barren Mountain'


(originally published on: Jul 23, 2011)(Updated 2013-04-23 to fix broken links)

Shi Yihong


The tropical heat and humidity has followed us all the way home to Quebec City from our vacation in Florida, a rare occurrence, and I find myself writing this post melting in my seat. Tomorrow we are set for rain, and the temperature should drop back down about 10 degrees. Hopefully!

Before leaving on vacation, I found this nice two hour long video while doing hard drive backups with performances from all the top names in Beijing Opera. Fern, who has a terrific blog herself, identified all the artists and songs. It’s great to have Fern helping me out.

You can download the video here. The file format is .RMVB and can be viewed using VLC. File size is 693 MB.

So here is Fern’s cast and song list in italics, with myself adding some odd notes here and there in (regular font):

Zhang Huoding

Zhang Huoding – Jiang Jie (Sister Jiang) (2003)

(There is a video of the complete “Sister Jiang” opera starring Zhang Huoding here).

Shi Yihong

Shi Min (she’s Shi Yihong but here she comes with her former name) – Bawang Bie Ji (Farewell My Concubine) sword dance (2003)

(Shi Yihong is one of the main stars in the spectacular HD opera in three parts “Female Warriors of the Yang Family”.

I found this performance outstanding! Shi Yihong is so convincing in the handling of her swords. Looks so effortless even though there is a lifetime of training involved!

Unless you can read Chinese and know this artist changed her name, there is no way to identify her in the Farewell My Concubine make-up. Bravo Fern!

Also of note here: the nice rolling deep drum.)

Yan Xingpeng

Yan Xingpeng – Liuchu Qishan (Six campaigns from Mount Qi) (1999)
Wikipedia: Zhuge Liang’s Northern Expeditions – In popular history, they overlap with the “six campaigns from Mount Qi” which is inaccurate, since Zhuge Liang only launched his campaigns from Mount Qi twice. Seems Yan Xingpeng is frequently playing Zhuge Liang, 18th here:

(Aha! The TV microphone hidden under the beard is betrayed by a loud plosive.)

Ye Shaolan and Shang Changrong

Ye Shaolan, Shang Changrong – Fei Hu Shan (Flying Tiger Hill) (1999)
You can read the story here.
These two individuals are so good together.

(People not familiar with Beijing Opera should probably not start here, Ye Shaolan’s singing will sound very special to western ears. Question to Fern: is Shang Changrong playing the tiger?)

(update) Fern responded by finding this screen shot of the actual “tiger” in the opera:


Sun Yumin
Sun Yumin – The Tale of Huo Xiaoyu (1999)
Sun Yumin is direct disciple of Xun Huisheng, one of the “4 great dan actor”.

(The story: poet Li Yi 李益 (748 – 829) abandons his lover, the prostitute Huo Xiaoyu, in favour of an honourable marriage. Still madly in love with him, she is unable to greet her clients and falls into misery. She dies in despair in front of him during a banquet. Her ghost then haunts the young man, bringing the curse of jealousy on him. Li Yi’s wife, who comes from a good family, divorces him. His manic jealousy drives him insane and he marries repeatedly, in vain.

This excerpt has a couple of microphone glitches, I’m surprised it was kept by the producers.

Also of note: red is the color of marriage. Notice the intense performance. It’s madness, I tell you!)

Du Zhenjie

Du Zhenjie – Huaihe Ying (Camp at Huai River) (1999)

Sun Wei

Sun Wei (Shanghai Chinese Opera Academy) – Sanjia Dian (Sanjia Inn) (2001)

Xu Ying

Xu Ying (National Chinese Opera Academy) Wenzhao Guan (The Zhao Pass) (2001)

Wan Lin

Wan Lin (Tianjin Chinese Opera Academy) – Silang Tan Mu (Silang Visits his Mother) (2001)

Wang Zi

Wang Zi (Beijing Chinese Opera Academy) – Dingjun Shan (Dingjun Mountain)

Yuan Huiqin

Yuan Huiqin – Yangmen Nü Jiang (Female Generals of the Yang Family) (2001)

Zhang Huoding

Zhang Huoding, Song Xiaochuan – Chun Gui Meng (Dream in a Girl’s Chamber)

(I keep repeating, Zhang Huoding is my favorite Beijing opera performer bar none, the video of this complete opera is here and one of our top picks is another breathtaking excerpt from this opera. I’m such a fan this excerpt alone is excuse enough to post the whole video, although I really have to admit this is not a particularly memorable clip).

Diao Li and Yu Kuizhi

Diao Li, Yu Kuizhi – Zuo Gong (Sitting in the Palace) (2001)
You can buy a CD of Diao Li here.

(I was fooled for a moment, I thought it was Li Shengsu, right up to the point where her voice cracks noticeably. And no, it wasn’t the microphone. I am shamed.

Yu is Yu. Simply the best at what he does.)

Tan Yuanshou, Tan Xiaoceng, Tan Zhengyan

Tan Yuanshou, Tan Xiaoceng, Tan Zhengyan – Dingjun Shan (Dingjun Mountain)
Tan Fuying’s descendants.

(Nice Chinese mandolin. Trio singing together is definitely not Verdi.)

Marriage material Li Haiyan

Li Shiji, Li Haiyan, Liu Guijuan – Suo Lin Nang (The Unicorn Purse) (2001)

(The reference “top pick” video of the complete Unicorn Purse starring Zhang Huoding is here.

This is a typical “three different generations of singers” setup. I like Li Haiyan here — I’m so predictable, sigh. )

Li Haiyan

Li Haiyan, Liu Guijuan – Concubine Meifei (2001)
The Emperor drops Guifei for Meifei on that notorious night in Drunken Concubine.

(Li Haiyan sings here briefly with her characteristic deep rich voice and exquisite control).

judge and old woman

Zhao Baoxiu, Meng Guanglu – Chisang Zhen (Red Mulberry Village) (2001)
Hahaha, we just watched the exact same excerpt a few days ago with my man. He asked, “Why is the old woman beating the judge?” Bao Zheng is the first Beijing opera character he recognizes. Tremendous achievement!

(Tricked again, it took me a second look to make sure that wasn’t Yuan Huiqin. Let’s just blame it on the heat and leave it at that.

Wikipedia has an interesting article on Bao Zheng here; in Chinese fiction, Bao Zheng has become a sort of historical crime detective character).

Li Jie

Li Jie – Tiannü San Hua (Heavenly Goddess Scattering Flowers) (2002)

(It’s a dirty job, but somebody has to do it.

I checked Fern’s blog and didn’t find anything on this singer. She hits some nice high notes here.)

jinghu solo

Zhao Jianhua – Chenlian (Morning excercise) (jinghu solo)

(The jinghu solo segues into an acrobatics segment performed by children.)

Mu Yu

Mu Yu (Beijing Chinese Opera Academy, laosheng, 13 yrs) – Huaihe Ying (Camp at Huai River) (2002)
I really liked this boy. His appearance so fits this role. (Edit: Meanwhile the grown up Mu Yu became one of my favorites.)

Lü Yisha

Lü Yisha (Beijing Chinese Opera Academy, female hualian, 11 yrs) – Suo Wu Long (Meeting Death with Ease) (2002)
Wow. A little girl.

Yu Yang

Yu Yang (Beijing Chinese Opera Academy, laosheng, 11 yrs) – Silang Visits His Mother (2002)

Wang Yu

Wang Yu (Beijing Chinese Opera Academy, laosheng, 10 yrs) – Dingjun Shan (Dingjun Mountain) (2002)

Wang Wenduan

Wang Wenduan (Beijing Chinese Opera Academy, female laosheng, 9 yrs) - Yuanmen Zhan Zi (Beheading the Son At the Camp’s Gate) (2002)

Shi Yihong

Shi Min (Shi Yihong) – Xi Shi (2002)

(Perfect time to sip a cup of jasmine tea.)

Zhang Huoding

Zhang Huoding – Da Deng Dian (The Great Enthronement) (2002)

(Collector instinct kicking in. “Must… find… a…video…of…this…complete…opera.” Zhang Huoding in an uncharacteristic role, her voice not in absolutely top form. Still, certainly one of the finest opera singers alive on the planet today.)

Yu Kuizhi

Yu Kuizhi – Zhuo Fang Cao (Capturing and Releasing Cao Cao) (2002)

(This costume looks like a cheap polyester costume shop deal. Why no embroidery? Yu does it honor in any case, he is terrific in the intro, garnering hand claps. He really shines at this kind of slower tempo aria, one can appreciate the reedy quality of his voice… The mind wanders and the body relaxes. Wonderful.)

Dong Yuanyuan

Dong Yuanyuan – Shang Wei (Mu Guiying Guashuai or “Mu Guiying Takes Command)
Dong Yuanyuan is my favourite Mei school actress.

(Fern is up on me, I don’t know this singer very well.)

Li Jun

Li Jun – Sha Qiao Jianbie (Farewell Dinner at Sandy Bridge) (2004)

(Li Jun has failed to hook me in so far. His red cape is hiding the nice embroidery on his costume.)

Deng Muwei

Deng Muwei – Yao Qi (2004)

Song Xiaochuan and Diao Li

Diao Li, Song Xiaochuan – Feng Huan Chao (Return of the Phoenix to the Nest) (2004)
Young Xiaochuan (left), gained some weight since then, hehe:
young Song Xiaochuan

(Song is actually lean and mean in this clip, he’s plumper these days. As they say in Hungarian, “Trr-rrragédia”. )

Geng Qichang

Geng Qichang – Er Tang She Zi (Sacrificing the Second Son) (2004)
Yang, Yu school laosheng, Li Weikang’s husband. One of the most appreciated figures of contemporary Bejing Opera.

That’s all, folks.


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